The Red Cross Book
Title
Overview
Museum Collections, Similar Items and Other Materials Used
National Educational Standards
Student Learning Objectives
Background and Historical Context
Vocabulary
Teacher Tips
Lesson Implementation Procedures
Evaluation/Assessment for Measurable Results
Extension and Enrichment Activities
Resources
Site Visit
Charts, Figures and other Teacher Materials Chart/Handouts
 

A. Title: Clara Barton, Founder of the American Red Cross, Pioneer and Innovator
  • Developer:
  • Franice Sewell, Park Ranger, Clara Barton NHS

    Kevin Patti, Park Ranger, Clara Barton NHS
    Dana Dierkes, Supervisory Park Ranger, Clara Barton NHS

  • Grade Level: Middle School
  • Number of Sessions in the Lesson Unit Plan: Three
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B. Overview of this Collection-Based Lesson Unit Plan
  • Park Name: Clara Barton National Historic Site
  • Description: Students learn how Clara Barton [1821-1912] broke boundaries as a woman, pioneer, and innovator during American Red Cross relief efforts. Students learn how Clara Barton prepared for disasters and developed emergency kits and how she used the latest technology in her Red Cross work.

    Lesson One, Breaking Boundaries: Students examine how Clara Barton broke boundaries, was a role model, as well as her contributions to the nation and the world.
    • Activity 1, Angel of the Battlefield Students role play news reporters and write eyewitness articles on the Civil War, and create illustrated and annotated comic strips about Clara Barton’s Civil War battlefield work.
    • Activity 2, Clara Barton and Her Work Student write memoranda about helping someone and create a self-portrait.
    • Activity 3, How to be Prepared? Students create a poster on “Helping Others Prepare for Emergencies.” 

    Lesson Two, Johnstown Flood of 1889 and Emergency Kits:
    • Activity 1, Students examine the impact and devastation of the Johnstown Flood, PA of 1889.
    • Activity 2, Students explore emergency preparedness needs and develop an emergency kit.

    Lesson Three, Technology:
    Students compare and contrast the technology of Clara Barton’s time to technology used today.



  • Essential Question:
    • How did Clara Barton break boundaries and what were her contributions to the world? What is needed to survive and recover from a disaster? How did Clara Barton use technology?
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C. Museum Collections, Similar Items and other Materials Used in this Lesson Unit Plan
MUSEUM OBJECT [photos of objects in the Carl Sandburg Home NHS museum collections] SIMILAR OBJECTS [local items similar to museum objects] & OTHER MATERIALS Length of time

Lesson One:
Breaking Boundaries


Activity #1- Angel of the Battlefield

Civil War News Souvenir Card
Civil War News Souvenir Card


Activity #2- Clara Barton And Her Work

Clara Barton And Her Work Pamphlet
Clara Barton And Her Work Pamphlet


Activity #3 - How to be Prepared?

First Aid Kit The Barton First-Aid Text-Book
First Aid Kit The Barton First-Aid Text-Book

Similar items:
Activity #1
Trading Card (i.e. Baseball, TV) commemorative card

Activity #2
Booklet Pamphlet

Activity #3
First Aid Kit
Manuals
Textbooks

Other materials:
Forms and Charts:
Activity 1:
Civil War News, "Clara Barton Helps Wounded Troops." Dec 25, 1863
Eyewitness to History worksheet

Angel of Mercy Illustration
Illustrated Comic Strip Worksheet

Activity 2
Clara Barton and Her Work Pamphlet
My Volunteer Journal Worksheet

Activity 3
"Helping Others Prepare for Emergencies" Poster
The First Aid Kit: Clara Barton and Her Work with the Naitonal First Aid Association
How to Read an Object chart

Books:
Activity #1
Magazines and newspapers

Activity #2

Clara Barton and Her Work Pamphlet

Activity #3

Magazines and newspapers

Art Making Materials:
Activity #1
Markers, crayons, pen and/or pencil

Activity #2

Markers, crayons, pen and/or pencil, colored pencils, paper

Activity #3

Poster board, paste and/or tape, scissors

Activity 1 and 2
50 – 60 minutes

Activity 3
45-50 Minutes

Lesson Two: Johnstown Flood and Emergency Kits


Activity #1-Johnstown Flood

Johnstown Flood Red Cross Hotel Johnstown Flood Red Cross Hotel (Interior)
Johnstown Flood Red Cross Hotel Johnstown Flood Red Cross Hotel (Interior)


Activity #2-Create an Emergency Kit?

First Aid Kit
First Aid Kit  

Similar items:
Activity #1
Photographs:
Hotels/Motels
Red Cross Trailers/Shelters

Activity #2
First Aid Kit

Other materials:
Forms and Charts:
Activity #1:
Johnstown Flood Statement Sheet

Activity #2
Compare and Contrast the Technology: Past and Present Worksheet

Art Making Materials:

Activity #2
Pencil, pen, paper

45-50 Minutes

Lesson Three, Technology:

Activity #1-Match the Technology: Past and Present

Letterpress Inkwell
Letterpress Inkwell
Roll of Missing Men Glasses
Roll of Missing Men Glasses
Letterpress Graphophone and Cylinder
Letterpress Graphophone and Cylinder
Sitz Bath Book
Sitz Bath Book

Similar items:
Activity #1
Photocopier, computer

Activity #2
All items listed in Lesson Three, Activity 1 worksheet

Other materials:
Forms and Charts:
Activity #1
Compare and Contrast the Technology: Past and Present Worksheet

Activity #2
Compare and Contrast the Technology: Past and Present Worksheet

Books:

Activity #2
Use books and Internet to find out more about past and present technology


Art Making Materials:

Activity #2
Computer, pencil or pen, paper for notes

Activity#1:
45-50 Minutes

Activity #2:
Research and prep
2-3 hours homework

Presenting material
1-2 class periods depending upon # of students

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D. National Educational Standards

Lesson One, Breaking Boundaries
National Center for History in the Schools from UCLA http://nchs.ucla.edu/standards/standardsk-4-3-4.html

Topic 3: History of the United States: Democratic Principles and Values and the People from Many Cultures Who Contributed to Its Cultural, Economic, and Political Heritage  

Standard 4C: Student understands historic figures who have exemplified values and principles of American democracy. 

K-4 Identify historical figures who believed in the fundamental democratic values such as justice, truth, equality, the rights of the individual, and responsibility for the common good, and explain their significance in their historical context and today. [Assess the importance of the individual in history]

K-4 Describe how historical figures in the U. S. and other parts of the world have advanced the rights of individuals and promoted the common good, and identify character traits such as persistence, problem solving, moral responsibility, and respect for others that made them successful. [Assess the importance of the individual in history]

Lesson Two, Johnstown Flood of 1889 and Emergency Kits
NSS-USH.K-4.1 Living and working together in families and communities, now and long ago.
+Understands family life now and in the past, and family life in various places long ago
+Understands the history of the local community and how communities in North America varied long ago.

NSS-USH.K-4.2 The history of students’ own state or region 
  • Understands the people, events, problems, and ideas that were significant in creating the history of their state
NSS-C.K-4.4 Other nations and world affairs 
  • What is the Relationship of the United States to Other Nations and to World Affairs?
  • How is the world divided into nations?
  • How do nations interact with one another?

Lesson Three, Technology

NT.K-12.1 Basic Operations and Concepts
  • Students demonstrate a sound understanding of the nature and operation of technology systems.
  • Students are proficient in the use of technology.

NT-K-12.2 Social, Ethical and Human Issues
    • Students practice responsible use of technology systems, information, and software.
    • Students develop positive attitudes toward technology uses that support lifelong learning, collaboration, personal pursuits and productivity.
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E. Student Learning Objectives
Lesson One, Breaking Boundaries
  • Students will understand the role of women in Clara Barton’s time.
  • Students will learn about Clara Barton’s life and legacy and how she broke boundaries.  

Lesson Two, Johnstown Flood and Emergency Kits
  • Students will learn how the American Red Cross and Clara Barton provided relief to victims of the Johnstown Flood.
  • Students will learn about disaster preparedness and what they can do to prepare for emergencies.

Lesson Three, Technology
  • Students will compare and contrast technology used in Clara Barton’s time with modern technology.

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F. Background and Historical Context

Lesson One, Breaking Boundaries [all headers should be the same, do the same as in Am. Rev War]

Clara Barton [1821-1912], founder of the American Red Cross, lived at Glen Echo for the last 15 years of her life. Born in Oxford, Massachusetts, Clara, a shy child, was the youngest of six children.  To help overcome her shyness, her mother encouraged Clara to become a teacher. While visiting friends, she recognized the need for a public school in Bordentown, NJ, and started a school there. Although she was the school's founder, she was bypassed for the position of principal because she was a woman.  Barton later worked in the U.S. Patent Office in Washington, D.C.

During the Civil War, Clara Barton saw many soldiers coming through DC, some wounded and others in need of supplies. She began collecting goods and supplies to give to the soldiers. Barton realized that to provide real support or services, she needed to be closer to the battlefield. As a woman, this was not an easy task. Through persistence, she was eventually allowed at the front. Barton helped all in need, irrespective of what side they fought on. After the war, Clara Barton organized a search for missing soldiers and worked to reconnect families with loved ones and to provide closure for families who had lost loved ones. 

Ms. Barton’s doctors recommended a much-needed rest, a holiday in Europe. Not used to being idle, she soon found a new cause. Barton learned of the International Red Cross, a neutral European organization that helped the sick and wounded during wartime. On her return to the U.S., she presented the idea of starting a Red Cross in America to the U.S. Government. Having just fought a war, and key American officials did not think another war was likely soon. There was also no interest in supporting an organization for victims of war. Barton amended her plan to include victims of famine and natural disasters. In spite of minimal support, she established and became the first president of the American Red Cross in 1881. 

Barton was drawn to Glen Echo, MD by Edward and Edwin Baltzley. The building she adapted functioned as her home, as well as a warehouse and national headquarters for the American Red Cross. Barton sent teams of volunteer aid workers to disaster sites and often accompanied them. The teams had supplies and a desire to help. Ms. Barton said, "Visit the worst places, stay long enough to learn the real needs, and supply them... This is the original style and spirit of real Red Cross work." She remained the president of the American Red Cross until her retirement 1904. After leaving the American Red Cross, Barton established the National First Aid Association of America and served as its honorary president for five years. The organization emphasized basic first aid instruction, emergency preparedness, and the development of first aid kits.

Barton was unlike most other women of her time. Before the Civil War, men were prominent in the public sphere. Many women stayed home, raised their children and took care of the family. She used what was thought of as a female trait, that of caregiver, combined with determination and drive, to establish an American organization that cared for the nation’s wounded soldiers during times of crisis. Barton took woman’s work into the male-dominated public realm. Despite obstacles, she left a legacy that continues to touches many people’s lives throughout the U.S. In her lifetime of service, she was honored by world leaders, and revered by rich and poor. 

Lesson Two, Johnstown Flood of 1889 and Emergency Kits

The Johnstown Flood of 1889 in Pennsylvannia claimed over 2,200 lives. The poorly maintained and weakened South Fork earthen dam collapsed and released a “wall of water” that rolled through the Conemaugh Valley reaching speeds of 40 mph and heights of 75 feet. Communities along the flood path were wiped out. Johnstown, with 30,000 inhabitants, was inundated in 10 minutes. In less than an hour after the dam gave way, entire families were lost and tens of thousands were left homeless. Lower areas of the city were covered by over 20 feet of standing water polluted by debris from 14 miles of countryside and remnants of local settlements. 

The American Red Cross arrived in Johnstown soon after the dam collapse. Barton directed the establishment of shelters; distribution of clothing, food, and medical supplies; and organized local relief committees. The Red Cross constructed a warehouse, three shelters, and an infirmary complex, and assisted with the city's rebuilding efforts.  After five months, at the close of the Red Cross operations, these buildings were dismantled.  Some lumber was sent to Washington, D.C. where Barton intended to build the Red Cross Headquarters. It took five years to rebuild much of Johnstown.

Johnstown recovery efforts increased awareness of the American Red Cross' contributions and capabilities. Barton wrote in Red Cross in Peace and War, “Without a safe, and with a dry goods box for a desk, we conducted financial affairs in money and material to the extent of nearly half a million dollars. The record on our books showed that over twenty-five thousand persons had been directly served by us. They had received our help independently and without begging. No child has learned to beg at the doors of the Red Cross.” For more information: http://www.nps.gov/jofl/.

Lesson Three, Technology
Clara Barton used the latest technology to be more efficient and productive. In her American Red Cross office she used new tools including a graphophone, telephone, typewriters, letterpresses, etc.  She commuted to Washington, DC from Glen Echo, MD, on the trolley and her life was well-documented by photographs, another popular technological innovation of the day. 

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G. Vocabulary

Lesson One, Breaking Boundaries
Bedridden:
confined to bed because of illness, injury, etc.
Demoted: reduced to a lower grade, rank, class, or position identification
Memorandum:; written record , document or terms of agreement
Missing Soldiers Office: Government office established after the Civil War to locate and identify missing soldiers
International Red Cross: Established 1864, a neutral and independent organization whose mission is to protect the lives and dignity of victims of war and internal violence, and to provide assistance. It directs and coordinates international relief activities in situations of conflict. It promotes and strengthens humanitarian law and universal humanitarian principles.
Phrenologist: psychological theory or analytical method based on the belief that certain mental faculties and character traits are indicated by the configurations of the skull
Solicit: seek for (something) by entreaty, earnest or respectful request
Treaty: agreement under international law among countries and nations
Treaty of Geneva: consists of four treaties and three additional protocolsthat set the standards in international law for humanitarian treatment of the victims of war
U.S. Patent Office: The United States Patent and Trademark Office is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions and trademark registration for product and intellectual property.


Lesson Two, Johnstown Flood and Emergency Kits
Dam: barrier (built of earth, masonry, etc.) to obstruct the flow of water, e.g., Hoover Dam
Relief Effort: effort to help others in need who may have been affected by a fire, flood, hurricane, disease, war, etc.
Disaster: occurrence causing widespread destruction, which may include injuries or deaths

Lesson Three, Technology
Technology: use of science to solve practical problems through the creation of new methods or devices
Graphophone: phonograph for recording and reproducing sounds on wax cylinders
Letterpress: equipment that uses ink, paper, and pressure to create a copy of a typewritten letter
Sitz bath: bathtub in which one bathes in a sitting position


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H. Teacher Tips
Before starting the Lesson One, provide each student with a copy of:
American Women in the 19th Century
Civil War News Card, blank newspaper sheet, comic strip template
Clara Barton And Her Work pamphlet  
Clara Barton and the National First-Aid Association


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I. Lesson Implementation Procedures
Lesson One, Breaking Boundaries

Activity #1 - Students analyze the Civil War News card; write news articles as reporters based on their eyewitness observations of Clara Barton’s Civil War battlefield work; create illustrated comic strips about Barton’s work during the Civil War with captions using attached blank newspaper sheet and comic strip.

Background Information: Civil War News Card
This Civil War News souvenir card is dated December 25, 1863, (Clara Barton’s 42nd birthday).  The front highlights Barton’s heroic actions on the battlefield and includes an illustration of a battle scene.  A Red Cross flag is in the background, although it wasn’t until 16 years after the Civil War that she founded the American Red Cross.

In 1965, Topps reproduced the Civil War News card series that contained 88 cards and 17 reproduction Confederate bills.  Each card has a color image with caption of a battle or historical event. The back of the card gray with a red-brown border; the card number is located in this border at the bottom corner on the right side.  The text is arranged in newspaper fashion.  A piece of facsimile Confederate currency was folded into every pack.  There was a one-cent and a five-cent pack.  The U. S. Civil War Centennial Celebration was still being commemorated in 1962 when Topps produced the Civil War card set.  It is known as Civil War News because of the "newspaper-like journal" columns on the reverse.  The cards were graphic, bloody, and sold well.

Activity: #2 - Students read the Clara Barton and Her Work Pampflet and develop short summaries of each category. Students write a two page article or memorandum describing how they helped someone, or an event that they observed. Students write their own journal entries, describe volunteer work and helping someone including, family, neighbors, pets, school, friends, or any community groups?  Students create their own cover portrait.

Background Information. Clara Barton and Her Work [Pamphlet, Pgs 1-8]:
Published in 1905, this pamphlet contains a 1902 photograph of Miss Barton and lists major dates and events in her life.  It highlights the Red Cross relief efforts world-wide and her work as president of the American Red Cross, stating, “How Miss Barton and her work are esteemed by those whom she has served” including the Johnstown Flood relief and the Sea Islands Hurricane relief.”
A photograph contains the following notes;  “Very truly yours Clara Barton” and caption, “From a photograph taken at St. Petersburg, Russia, July, 1902, showing the decoration conferred upon Miss Barton by the Miss Barton by the Czar and Empress Dowager,” and includes the following text, “Memorandum of some of the Leading Incidents in the Life of Clara Barton.”  

Activity #3 Students do a "How to Read an Object" chart on the First Aid Kit and compare and contrast Ms. Barton's kit with emergency kits today. Students create a poster board with the theme “Helping Others Prepare for Emergencies.”  Students cut out pictures out of old catalogs, magazines, and newspapers or browse the Internet for photographs of supply items needed during an emergency. Students will attach their photographs to the poster board.

Background Information: First Aid Kit and Text Book
In 1903, Clara Barton published the following statement: “We are actively organizing a new branch of the Red Cross, to be known as ‘The First Aid Department’ of the American National Red Cross, which department will be largely educational and will concern itself in instructing the people everywhere throughout the United States in the best modern methods of first aid treatment, in all cases of accident and emergency.”  In April 1905, Clara Barton established the National First Aid Association of America and served as its honorary president for five years. The organization emphasized basic first aid instruction, emergency preparedness, and the development of first aid kits. Ambulance brigades were formed in conjunction with police and fire departments, as well as in industrial settings.


Lesson Two, Johnstown Flood and Emergency Kits

Activity #1 - Describe the Johnstown Flood and the devastation it caused. Distribute individual Johnstown Flood Resident Statements. Students analyze and read assigned statements aloud. In groups, students discuss the events, causes and impacts and draw contemporary parallels. They present their findings. Students analyze photographs of American Red Cross relief shelters built during the recovery effort.

Activity#2 - Discuss the needs people have after a disaster. Student groups discuss pros and cons of an emergency kit. They compare and contrast the historic emergency kit with that found today. Assign students to bring in an item from home that could be part of an emergency kit. Students write captions for each object, and group similar items. Go to www.ready.gov for information about emergency kits.

Lesson Three, Technology

Activity #1. Provide an overview of technology of Ms. Barton’s Victorian era, compare and contrast with today. Distribute Compare and Contrast the Technology: Past and Present to each student for individual completion. Student hand his/her paper to another student and correct the answers in groups or as a class.

Answers

Letterpress = photocopier, computer
Inkwell = pens, computer
Rolls of Missing Men = computer
Glasses = contacts or eye surgery or similar item today
Typewriter = computer
Graphophone = voice recorder, tape recorder, iPod/mP3 player, or audio recording software
Sitz Bath = bathtub
Book = audiobooks, electronic readers, or same item today

Activity 2. In teams of two, assign each team one historic item listed in activity 1. As homework, Student 1 researches how the historic item operated and prepares a description of how the technology works. Student 2 develops a comparison of this to its modern counterpart(s) [identified in Activity 1] and prepares an explanation of how the modern technology works. Students 1 and 2 co-present their research, findings and illustrations to the class. 

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J. Evaluation/Assessment for Measurable Results

Students write articles, captions and compare/contrast sheets and oral presentations.

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K. Extension and Enrichment Activities

Write and perform a skit on how to prepare for an emergency preparedness during school.

Organize and host a school-wide fundraiser for charity.  Consider an auction, carwash, bake sale, talent show as ways to raise money.  You'll need a letter from the charitable organization of choice.  Be sure to get a tax-deductible form to recognize donors for financial and in-kind gifts such as prizes.  A well-run fundraiser is an opportunity to financially support a good cause, raise public awareness, and develop young people’s leadership skills and a sense of community. 

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L. Resources
Lesson One, Breaking Boundaries:

Other National Park Service sites commemorating American women at:       
Additional information on Clara Barton and her legacy:
Lesson Two, Johnstown Flood and Emergency Kits: Lesson Three, Technology [Back to top]
M. Site Visit
Pre-visit:

Pre-visit:
Explore the virtual museum exhibit and house tour at www.nps.gov/history/museum and www.nps.gov/clba and complete the volunteer activity on Clara Barton. Students can complete the “How to Read an Object Chart” on specific collection objects to further understand Clara Barton’s story.

Site visit:
Visit the park site at www.nps.gov/clba for details Students receive a Junior Ranger booklet and must complete five activities to receive a Junior Ranger badge and a certificate of completion.

Post visit:
Students complete the Interactive Experience Virtual Tour at www.nps.gov/clba. A certificate of completion can be printed after completion.
  


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N. Charts, Figures and Other Teacher Materialshttp://www.nps.gov/history/museum/tmc/images/decorCircle.gif

Lesson One, Breaking Boundaries:  

Activity #1

Eyewitness to History worksheet
Angel of Mercy Illustration
Illustrated Comic Strip Worksheet

Activity #2
Clara Barton and Her Work Pamphlet
My Volunteer Journal Worksheet

Activity #3
"Helping Others Prepare for Emergencies" Poster
The First Aid Kit: Clara Barton and Her Work with the Naitonal First Aid Association
How to Read an Object chart

Lesson Two, Johnstown Flood and Emergency Kits:

Activity #1:
Johnstown Flood Statement Sheet
Red Cross Hotel Images

Activity #2:
Compare and Contrast the Technology: Past and Present Worksheet

Lesson Three, Technology:

Activity #1:
Compare and Contrast the Technology: Past and Present
Worksheet

Activity #2:
Compare and Contrast the Technology: Past and Present Worksheet



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